The Books
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Christopher Columbus Who?

Although this Christopher Columbus investigation was so far only published in Portuguese and Spanish
we felt it helpful to translate some of the comments received from some of our readers and critics.

Columbus Positive Review Verissimo Serrao Supports Columbus TheoryOf all the feedback we have received so far, we are proudest of this letter written by one of the greatest Portuguese historians and a world renowned author of history books, Prof. Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão who says:
ur book was the subject of reading and re-reading and I am convinced by the force of the argument that you present. I can say that I am in complete agreement with the points that you offer for the reader to contemplate. For a long time I have also defended that Columbus was a “double-agent” of King John II that was necessary to the great Monarch ...
-- Prof. Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão, PhD,
former Dean of the University of Lisbon, Ex-President of the Portuguese Academy of History and author of the History of Portugal going on 15 volumes.

Columbus Positive Review“Another nutty conspiracy theory!” That’s what I first supposed as I started to read the manuscript Unmasking Columbus sent me just to edit its English. After all, it turned upside down most of what I had learned about Columbus since the 1940s.
It claimed that Columbus knew in October 1492 that he was nowhere near India, but that he called the Caribbean region he had reached “the Indies” in an outright lie, because he was a double agent actually serving the king of Portugal and double-crossing his patrons, Ferdinand and Isabella, that he was an expert geographer and navigator and a Portuguese nobleman, not a shipwrecked ignorant sailor or wool-weaver from Genoa.
I thought I would read a little of the book to enjoy myself poking holes in its arguments and then decline to edit it. However, the more I read, the more convincing its massive accumulation of historical details became. Far from fanatics, its authors present their claims modestly, pointing out areas that need further research, and even saying that their conclusions at present lack 100% proof. True, history rarely admits of 100% certitude, but I would say that their book provides the best answers to many previously unexplained problems in the Columbus puzzle.
I now believe that if Columbus were alive and on trial by any fair civil court, he would be found guilty of huge fraud carried out over two decades against his patrons.... Against my initial instinct, despite a lifetime that has taught me to question all things, I found myself believing that the case against Columbus presented here is about as solid as Fawn Brodie’s claims that Jefferson sired slaves by his Black slave Sally.... I refer you to two news clippings about my doctoral research at Columbia University, dealing with questions of authorship (to show that I am used to weighing evidence, evaluating sources, drawing conclusions from written remains). They are the New York Times, Sunday, August 6, 1961, pp. 1 (col. 2), 70 (col. 1) and Time magazine, August 18, 1961, pp. 43, 44.

(James T. McDonough, Jr. earned his Ph.D. in classical philology from Columbia University and taught at St. Joseph's University for 31 years. He was a Professor at a number of Universities)

Columbus Positive ReviewWhat Manuel Rosa succeeded in doing was that which many Columbus historians until now had not been able to do or did not wish to do. He succeeded in proving the contradictions and falsities in the majority of the Columbus documents that, until now, the scientific community had accepted as good and correct. And at this point what that scientific community has to do is either accept the facts as pointed out by Manuel Rosa or prove with arguments why the documents that Mr. Rosa points out as being contradictory or false are really accurate and correct. What I am seeing here is a truth about Columbus that was maintained covered-up by the scientific community: mainly that the Genoese papers are either made-up or have nothing to do with Christopher Columbus’s true nationality. Therefore it remains an open question the true identity of Christopher Columbus and we must study Mr. Rosa’s proposition that Columbus was indeed a Portuguese nobleman. It is exactly by not having investigated this issue in the past that the Portuguese scientific community is seen today as having failed. There are others like Prof. Lorente doing Columbus DNA analysis and not one word from our own scientific community. How can they avoid being blamed if the Portuguese nationality ever becomes proven beyond a doubt? Only the will to continue investigating will tell if the version of the history put forth by Manuel Rosa, and others, about a Portuguese Colon is the correct history.
-- Fernando de Telde

Christopher Columbus Failed review It is not necessary to read a work to be able to criticize it, it is only necessary to know the subject through other works... And being that I am licensed in History... when I was loaned the book by  Mascarenhas Barreto on Columbus, I read it with pleasure... if someone will lend me  this new work about Christopher Columbus, having I the time I will read it with pleasure... at times a lot of old information, be it correct or incorrect, having been forgotten and then reused by whoever sees fit today must be pointed out here for the good of truth and justice.
- Português Racional author of the PH Colombina Blog

Columbus Positive ReviewDear Manuel da Silva Rosa, it was with great pleasure that I assisted the Columbus conference at the Geographic Society of Lisbon on 26th February 2007. Although I devoured your book there still remain many questions and themes left to be clarified. I would like to invite you to our university to do a conference for our professors and students about Christopher Columbus.
- Prof. Pedro Nevado, PhD, University Técnica de Lisboa (ISEG)

Review ColumbusMy congratulations on publishing the results of your 15-year investigation on Christopher Columbus's life. "The Mystery of Columbus Revealed" is an authentic "eye-opener" not only for the Portuguese but to Historians of other countries, languages and cultures. I hope soon this is published in the  major languages of the world... I am currently re-reading your book. Much of the details are better understood with a second reading, not because of a lack of clarity but due to the rich and immense quantity of information about Columbus that the book contains. In fact I feel that the multitude of Footnotes as well as the documents in the Appendix are almost as valuable as the text itself. Once more, my sincere congratulations to you, as well as to Mr. Eric J. Steele.
- Comendador José A. da Silva Campos, Order of Infante D. Henrique (1984). Agualva, Cacém, PORTUGAL

Columbus PassI must say with all honesty that I find it the book The Mystery of Christopher Columbus Revealed, a work of incredible value, very well researched and organized. It is out of the many that I have read on the subject of Columbus the most valid. I believe that no one after having read this monumental work will have the guts to contest its facts.
- Capitan João Garcia

Pass ColumbusI have read the book "O Mistério Colombo Revelado", as well as many others published previously about this subject of Columbus and I wish to congratulate the authors on this investigation. There is not much longer  to go before the whole truth comes to the surface.
- A. de Carvalho

Columbus ReviewI was glad to attend your conference on Columbus at the Geographic Society of Lisbon and to see that your new facts were so well accepted that even Professor Francisco Contente Domingues (auto proclaimed as “being trained to poke holes and doubts in theories”) eulogize the seriousness and merit of your work. I was also surprised to see that the audience in the ensuing discussion not only accepted but believed that Christopher Columbus was a Portuguese and went as far as to even defend it and point out why the history has been flawed. Such a case was the teacher who lectured that the daughters of the Captain Donataries, such as Columbus's wife, required authorization from the King to marry.
- Alexandre Filipe

Pass ReviewI have been following this Christopher Columbus controversy with some regularity and couldn’t help show my total agreement with what you have written. I would like to congratulate you on a magnificent work and praise the cordial attitude that you, Manuel Rosa, have always maintained as you argued and countered with the maximum of respect for the opposing views.
- Luís Projecto Calhau

Columbus Pass ReviewI just finished reading your book and to tell the truth, of all the  studies that I have read up-to-now about the “mysterious” Admiral  Christopher Columbus this is without a doubt the most complete, with the most documental proof, and the best work about this subject ever realized.
I live in Évora, I am a genealogist and a longtime member of the Superior Counsel of the Portuguese Association of Genealogy. I have a genealogy website and have been interested in this subject because of longtime rumors that Columbus or Colon was born near here. I have investigated the genealogies of many families of Beja and there are many individuals of last name Zarco belonging to the nobility in the XVI and XVII centuries. I am hoping that your DNA studies end up confirming that Christopher Columbus was a Portuguese and that the Portuguese and Spanish organizations cooperate towards that end so one day we know for certain “Who really was Christopher Columbus?”

- António Carlos Godinho Janes Monteiro

Pass Review ColumbusMy sincerest congratulations for your fantastic work on this Columbus investigation. I wish that sooner or later the Truth is Revealed at a Worldwide level. Finally we have an explanation with the necessary proof of the secrecy during the Age of the Portuguese Discoveries and the mysteries of the court of King John II. I wish you Good Luck with your investigation and hope that the full truth is finally encountered so that Christopher Columbus's identity  does not remain forever confused.
- Paulo Cosme

Pass ReviewI just finished reading the book and I congratulate you. I admire your courage in confronting the world especially those who “didn’t read and didn’t like it”. I confess that for the first time in the Christopher Columbus mystery the pieces of the Columbus/Colon “puzzle” begin to make some sense.
- Marmello (

Pass ReviewI enjoyed immensely learning as much as I did from your book and the pleasure that reading it gave me. My compliments to the authors. I was impressed by how much investigative work was done in preparing for writing this book. It is in fact the work of a lifetime and worthy of praise.
- Fernando Carmo

Review ColumbusI am from Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil and bought "The Mystery of Columbus Revealed" book on the Internet. I wish to congratulate you both for the courage and determination that have resulted, in my point of view, in a fantastic work that may yet end up making real Columbus's final epitaph: In te, Domine, speravi, non confundar in aeternum ./ In Thee, Lord, I hoped to not be forever confused.”
- Marco Antonio Velho Pereira

ColumbusCongratulations on an excellent book that takes a completely different look at the Age of Discovery, and what a look! I would like to express my admiration to you for having done such a notable job and above all a credible job involving this taboo of the history of the Portuguese Discoveries and I believe that it wasn’t the least bit easy going against all that was established and even against so many good people.
- Luis de Almeida

Columbus Positive Review

I am reading your Columbus book very carefully. I would like very much to communicate with you. I have always had questions on the nationality of  Columbus and published them 15 years ago in Massachusetts. I have written “Antonio's Island", and I am from Wareham, MA. I am now in  Lisbon investigating the history of Portugal and Cabo Verde. You are making a great contribution to this history and I am learning a  lot from your book. Your work is of great importance and deserves to be read carefully.
--  Dr. Marcel Balla, PhD, graduate of Boston University with an MA in  International Relations in 1976. He also studied at the University of  Lisbon and other universities in Portugal. He has served abroad as an International Community Development consultant, speaks seven languages,  has written many articles on the history of Cabo Verde, and has also  given many lectures at various institutions throughout the U.S., Europe  and the Middle East.

Columbus Positive ReviewI am a professor of History who specialize in 15th and 16th century Portuguese contacts with West Africa. I focus on the Cape Verde Islands, and utilize Portuguese archival records from this colony, to reconstruct African History. I do Portuguese paleography, and have a Ph.D. in History (Johns Hopkins University, 1993).
My research on Columbus in West Africa supports your conclusions that he was a Portuguese spy for King Joao II (1481-1495). This explains how Columbus was able to sail to Elmina fort in modern-day Ghana, ca.1482-1485, and why he met with the king when he returned from America in March 1493. It also explains where he received the money he invested in his first voyage to America.
I am trying to get a DNA profile of the Columbus family because I want to work on the Portuguese members of his family--wife, children, and others.

Prof. Trevor Hall, Ph.D., Jamaica

Christopher Columbus Knock-Out The Authors state that the historians of the past have missed the Columbus mark and say that because of this they wish instead to investigate like detectives "and not like historians have done". Therefore they are not acting as historians and because of this they intend to do a better job. This last point leads me to a disturbing conclusion even more so because, in their words, historians aside from having having "invented" and "forged" the history of Christopher Columbus, must also be incompetent and worthless,--this I deduce from what I have heard so far. Being that historians have all of these defects, are they also not culpable in all the other cases? By this reasoning one could ignore all the previous works done by historians leaving the field wide open to all who wish to discuss anything more important than the nationality of Christopher Columbus such as, for instance, the massacre of the Jews in World War II. Thankfully for the benefit of truth, the authors shied away from these other subjects.
Prof. João C. da Silva de Jesus, PhD in History.

Manuel Rosa Columbus Historian
Historian Manuel Rosa, during a book signing at the Lisbon Book Fair, June 2007.

Columbus Positive ReviewBy this letter I make it known that I consider the historical investigation done by Manuel da Silva Rosa and published in the book «O Mistério Colombo Revelado» (The Mystery of Columbus Revealed) as a scientific contribution of the highest order to the study of the life of Christopher Columbus, discoverer of the Americas. Considering the high quality of the work done so far and the authors plans for future investigation, I ask that that all relevant government cabinets and the academic circles support Manuel da Silva Rosa in the research for this important work of investigation. Brussels, 26 de November 2006
- Prof. José Sequeira Carvalho, PhD, of ISEG University Técnica de Lisboa

Columbus Book ReviewThe facts are pilling up supporting the Portuguese origins of Christopher Columbus/Colon. The case has generated certain controversy in Portugal where this issue is usually never discussed. The recent book by Manuel da Silva Rosa and Eric J. Steele “O Mistério Colombo Revelado” (Lisbon, 2006), exposes along its 600 plus pages documented information that revolutionizes everything we thought we knew about this navigator. The countless contradictions that made up this real "unsolved Columbus mystery" are now clarified in a work of rigorous scientific method. This is the fundamental piece of work about the secrets surrounding the life of Christopher Columbus. The authors by investigating in the archives of various countries destroy completely many of the falsities and "inventions" that had been written about the "discoverer of America".
- Director Carlos Fontes

Pass Review
The book must be read very carefully following step by step the interpretations the author presents from from the documents in the historical context and that logically bring you to the solution, although still lacking the smoking gun, that Christopher Columbus was the son of a Portuguese nobleman. Manuel Rosa is sufficiently cautious and honest to let the readers decide for themselves what the Columbus documents mean. However it is easier to agree with the Portuguese nationality then to try and deny it... The book disassembles completely the inconsistent arguments that others used, either lightly or by lack of knowledge, of King John II’s Court, and must be looked at as a whole. Manuel Rosa deserves a big round of applause from the minute detail of his investigation, the sharpness of his interpretations, the clear arguments, and the capacity to expose the contradictions in all of the previous works by his counterparts.
- P. Melo
Pass Review
Aside form the exhaustive analyses of the contradictions in the evolving picture of this history, Manuel Rosa presented a list of falsehoods contained in the document accepted as Columbus's Last Will of 1498, namely asking to make purchases in a bank that was closed at the time and with an express interest rate that was not in effect at that time. These facts were exposed by professors... and on top of it, by Italian ones. This is more than sufficient proof that, as it is presented, the Last Will document is forged... The proof has been shown and whoever wishes to support that the Last Will of 1498 is in actuality authentic must deny the fact --bank closed and wrong interest rate-- or else argue that the document is irrelevant to history of Columbus/Colon.
- Fernando Aguiar

Pass Review
Your work is in the opinion of many conceptual people what is referred to in English as a breakthrough. No one before you had seen so clearly the work of Christopher Columbus inserted into a game of chess where the King of the Board was King D. John II with loyal pawns inside the field of the adversary. This game was so genially planed that it was impossible to King John II lose or have a tie. Only victory was possible exactly as it happened resulting in the Treaty of Tordesillas that kept the Spanish very far from the real India.
- Alexandre Neves

Pass Review
Excellent work in this book which unravels the falsity of the "Genoese Columbus" arguments leaving open all other possibilities, yet pointing to the most probable hypothesis which is that we have yet another Lusitanian hero in the Age of Discovery.
- Augusto Costa

Columbus Pass Review
Forget everything that you were taught about Columbus  [Cristóvão Colon]. Then prepare yourself to read a fantastic book. Maintain your attitude always open while reading the The Mystery of Columbus Revealed because at each step you will follow the traces and clues that Manuel Rosa and Eric Steele reveal as a result of this 15-year investigation. The text is easy to follow, filled with citations from documents --many of them bilingual-- that serve to prove that Columbus/Colon was a noble in Portugal before heading to Spain... The role of Columbus /Colon was crucial to Portugal as can be seen in this book and his patriotism with Portugal was constant. From the day this book hit the market it has been seen as a mandatory reference in the study of the life of Columbus/Colon and I hope that more will soon be revealed in the name of the truth.
- Rui Correia

Pass Columbus Review
I finished the book yesterday and I am convinced that C. Colon was a Portuguese. It is a work that stands out for its sincerity and rigor and reviews all of the problematic facets that surround C. Columbus with the only intent of finding out the truth. All that is stated is based on the documents. Especially notable is the clarification of the noble family of Columbus's wife, Filipa Moniz, and their close connections to King John II. “O Mistério Colombo Revelado” (The Mystery of Columbus Revealed) will remain the outstanding mark of all the bibliography related to Christopher Columbus and I believe that any future publication is required to reference this book. Congratulations.
- Clemente

Pass Review ColumbusIllustrious Authors of "O Mistério Colombo Revelado", I have read the book and I recommend it highly.
- Mário Casa Nova Martins

Columbus Review
I finished the book today and it was not an easy task. I must say, for  it is extensive and very is exceptional in the way that it  succeeds in bringing together practically everything that is known about the life of Columbus plus the way it integrates Columbus into the context of the Kingdoms, languages and events of the day in order to justify the theory presented. I admire the exhaustive work about the kingdom of Portugal in the XV century, the policy of secrecy of the crown in regards to navigation and in regards to other kingdoms, the influence of the military orders, the detailed analyses of Columbus's in-laws, etc...
-- Professor Rui Duque, Madeira

Pass ReviewI finished recently your book with great pride and satisfaction... I took the liberty of sending to some national entities a letter to safeguard our national heritage. Thank you again for the great moments you gave me in such a profound study.
- Carlos Sete

Pass ReviewFirst of all let me congratulate you on the book. I read it zealously. Most certainly Columbus's true name is already known. I trust that if we find a Portuguese nobleman who disappeared at the same time that Columbus/Colon appeared [1484] the case is solved. There was one, but he was killed by King John II [08-1484] and I don’t believe he was part of the plot..
- Pedro Marinho Mendes

Pass Review It is now clear that the subject of Christopher Columbus remains completely unresolved and the Portuguese Academy of History has already been requested by a member of Parliament to open up a debate about this issue.
--Prof. Manuela Mendonça, PhD, President of the Portuguese Academy of History

Review ColumbusI am still at the beginning but I have an open mind and I see that the authors are very cautious and only proceed in that which they have proof. Good Luck
- Isabel Alegre


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